Хайбар шайқасы — нұсқалар арасындағы айырмашылық

Түйіндемесі өңделмейді
|casualties2=93 өлді}}
 
'''Хайбар шайқасы''' Һижра бойынша 629 жыла Аллаһ елшісі [[Мұхаммад]] {{салауат}} пен Исраиль ұрпақтары арасында Һиджаз жері, бүгінгі күнгі Сауд Арабиясы территориясында болған шайқас.<ref name="Britannica">{{cite encyclopedia | title=Ali | encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica Online | accessdate=2007-10-12}}</ref>
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On the reasons for the attack, Scottish historian [[William Montgomery Watt]] notes the presence in Khaybar of the [[Banu Nadir]], who were inciting hostilities among with neighboring Arab tribes against the Islamic community in [[Medina]]. Italian orientalist [[Laura Veccia Vaglieri]], while giving full credence to Watt's view, claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the [[Looting|booty]] which could be used to supplement future campaigns.<ref name="EI">Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar", [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]</ref><ref name="st19">Stillman 19</ref>
 
== Дереккөздер ==
The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years until they were expelled by [[caliph]] [[Umar]]. The imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the [[sharia|Islamic law]] requiring the exaction of tribute known as ''[[jizya]]'' from [[dhimmi|non-Muslims]] under Muslim rule, and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the [[ummah|Muslim community]].<ref name="EI" /><ref name="Stillman 18–19">Stillman 18&ndash;19</ref><ref name="Lewis 10">Lewis 10</ref> In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, and to be exempted from military service and the [[Zakat]], which is obligatory upon Muslim citizens.
<references/>
 
== Сыртқы сілтемелер ==
==Pretext to battle==
*Alfred Guillaume. ''The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah''. Oxford University Press, 1955. ISBN 0-19-636033-1
 
===Khaybar in the 7th century===
{{Main|Jewish community of Khaybar}}
 
In the 7th century, Khaybar was inhabited by Jews. The inhabitants had stored in a redoubt at Khaybar a siege-engine, swords, lances, shields and other weaponry. In the past some scholars attempted to explain the presence of the weapons, suggesting that they were used for settling quarrels among the families of the community. Vaglieri suggests that it is more logical to assume that the weapons were stored in a depôt for future sale. Similarly the Jews kept 20 bales of cloth and 500 cloaks for sale, and other luxury goods. These commercial activities as a cause of hostility, Vaglieri argues, are similar to the economic causes behind persecutions in many other countries throughout history.<ref name="EI" />
 
The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shikk, and al-Katiba, probably separated by natural divisions, such as the desert, [[lava]] drifts, and swamps. Each of these regions contained several fortresses or redoubts including homes, storehouses and stables. Each fortress was occupied by a separate family and surrounded by cultivated fields and palm-groves. In order to improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or [[basalt]] rocks.<ref name="EI" />
 
===Banu Nadir===
{{see also|Banu Nadir}}
After they were sent into exile in 625, the [[Banu Nadir]] had settled in Khaybar. In 627, the Nadir chief [[Huyayy ibn Akhtab]] together with his son joined the Meccans and Bedouins besieging Medina during the [[Battle of the Trench]].<ref>Stillman 14, 16-17</ref> In addition, the Nadir paid Arabian tribes to go to war against the Muslims. Bribing [[Banu Ghatafan]] with half their harvest, Banu Nadir secured 2,000 men 300 horsemen from the tribe to attack Muhammad,<ref name="Watt35-6">Watt, ''Muhammad at Medina'', p. 34-37.</ref><ref name="Nomani368">Nomani, ''Sirat al-Nabi'', p. 368-370.</ref> and similarly persuaded the Bani Asad.<ref name = "halabi1">al-Halabi, ''Sirat-i-Halbiyyah'' (Vol. II, part 12), p. 19.</ref> They attempted to get the Banu Sulaym to attack the Muslims, but the tribe gave them only 700 men, since some of its leaders were sympathetic towards Islam; the Bani Amir refused to join them all together, as they had a pact with Muhammad.<ref name ="trenchLing">Lings, ''Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources'', p. 215-6.</ref> Once the battle started, Huyayy ibn Akhtab persuaded the [[Banu Qurayza]] to go against their covenant with Muhammad and turn against him during the battle.<ref>Peterson, ''Muhammad: the prophet of God'', p. 127.</ref> After defeat of the confederates in the battle and Qurayza's subsequent surrender, Huyayy (who was at that time in the Qurayza strongholds of Medina) was killed alongside the men of the Qurayza. After the death of Huyayy, [[Abu al-Rafi ibn Abi al-Huqayq]] took charge of the Banu Nadir at [[Khaybar]]. Al-Huqayq soon approached neighboring tribes to raise an army against Muhammad.<ref name="Nomani 1979, vol. II, pg. 156">Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 156</ref><ref>Urwa, ''Fath al-Bari'', Vol. VII, pg. 363</ref> After learning this, the Muslims, aided by an Arab with a Jewish dialect, assassinated him.<ref name="st17">Stillman 17</ref>
 
Al-Huqayq was succeeded by [[Usayr ibn Zarim]]. It has been recorded by one source<ref>Zurqani, Ala al-Mawahib, Vol. II, p.196, Egypt</ref> that Usayr also approached the Ghatafan and rumors spread that he intended to attack the "capital of Muhammad".
The latter sent Abdullah bin Rawaha with a number of his companions, among whom were [[Abdullah bin Unays]], an ally of Banu Salima, a clan hostile to the Jews. When they came to him they spoke to him and treated him saying that if he would come to Muhammad he would give him an appointment and honour him. They kept on at him until he went with them with a number of Jews. Abdullah bin Unays mounted him on his beast until when he was in al-Qarqara, about six miles from Khaybar, Usayr changed his mind about going with them. Abdullah perceived his intention as he was preparing to draw his sword so he rushed at him and struck him with his sword cutting off his leg. Usayr hit him with a stick of shauhat wood which he had in his hand and wounded his head. All Muhammad's emissaries fell upon the thirty Jewish companions and killed them except one man who escaped on his feet.<ref>Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume, p. 665-666</ref> Abdullah bin Unays is the assassin who volunteered and got permission to kill Banu Nadir's [[Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq]] at a previous night mission in Khaybar.
 
Many scholars have considered the above machinations of the Nadir as a reason for the battle. According to [[Montgomery Watt]], their intriguing and use of their wealth to incite tribes against Muhammad left him no choice to attack;<ref>Watt 189</ref> Vaglieri concurs that one reason for attack was that the Jews of Khaybar were responsible for the Confederates that attacked Muslims during the [[Battle of the Trench]].<ref name="EI" /> [[Shibli Numani]] also sees Khaybar's actions during the [[Battle of the Trench]], and draws particular attention to Banu Nadir's leader [[Huyayy ibn Akhtab]], who had gone to the [[Banu Qurayza]] during the battle to instigate them to attack Muhammad.<ref name="Nomani 1979, vol. II, pg. 156"/>
 
===Treaty of Hudaybiyya===
{{see also|Treaty of Hudaybiyya}}
In 628, when the Muslims attempted to perform the [[Hajj|pilgrimage]],<ref>Lings (1987), p. 249</ref> After much negotiations, the Muslims entered a peace treaty with the Quraysh, ending the Muslim-Quraysh wars. Some of his followers, however, were discontent at the terms Muhammad had agreed to.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad">Ehlert, Trude."Muhammad", ''[[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]''</ref>
 
Scholars agree that Muhammad's need to raise his prestige amongst his followers, which had been eroded by the Treaty, was one reason for the battle.<ref name="EI" /><ref name="st18">Stillman 18</ref><ref>Watt 188&ndash;189</ref><ref>Lewis ''Arabs in History'' 43</ref> Vaglieri also argues that the conquest of Khaybar would satisfy those Muslims who had hoped to conquer Mecca, as well as bring in army and money.<ref name="EI" /> Stillman adds that Muhammad needed the victory to show the Bedouins, who were not strongly tied to the rest of the Muslim community, that the alliance with him would pay off.<ref name="st18" /> In addition, the treaty also gave Muhammad the assurance of not being attacked in the rear by the Meccans during the expedition.<ref name="EI" />
 
===Political situation===
As war with Muhammad seemed imminent, the Jews of Khaybar entered into an alliance with the Jews of [[Fadak]] oasis. They also successfully persuaded the Bedouin Ghatafan tribe to join their side in the war in exchange for half their produce. However, in comparison to the power of the North, Muhammad's army did not seem to pose enough of a threat for the Khaybar to sufficiently prepare themselves for the upcoming battle. Along with the knowledge that Muhammad's army was small, and in need of resources, the lack of central authority at Khaybar prevented any unified defensive preparations, and quarrels between different families left the Jews disorganized.<ref name="EI" /> The Banu Fazara, related to the Ghatafan, also offered their assistance to Khaybar, after their unsuccessful negotiations with the Muslims.<ref>Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 159</ref>
 
===Failure of Banu Ghatafan===
 
During the battle, the Muslims were able to prevent Khaybar's Ghatafan allies (consisting of 4,000 men) from providing them with reinforcements. One reason given is that the Muslims were able to buy off the Bedouin allies of the Jews. Watt, however, also suggests that rumors of a Muslim attack on Ghatafan strongholds might also have played a role.<ref name="st18" /><ref>Watt (1956), pg. 93</ref>
According to Tabari, Muhammad's first stop in his conquest for Khaybar was in the valley of al-Raji, which was directly between the Ghatafan people and the Khaybar. In hearing the news of the Muslim army's position, the Ghatafan organized and rode out to honor their alliance with the Khaybar. After a day of travel, the Ghatafan thought they heard their enemy behind them and turned around in order to protect their families and possessions, thus opening the path for Muhammad's army.<ref>{{cite book|last=al-Tabari|title=The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam|year=1997|publisher=Albany : State University Of New York|pages=116}}</ref> Another story says that a mysterious voice warned the Ghatafan of danger and convinced them to return to their homes.<ref name="P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs">{{cite web|last=P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs|first=Editors|title=Khaybar|url=http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/khaybar-COM_0503?s.num=0&s.q=Khaybar|work=Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition|publisher=Brill Online|accessdate=April 18, 2012}}</ref>
 
==Course of the Battle==
 
The Muslims set out for Khaybar in May 628, Muharram 7 AH.<ref>Watt 1956, pg. 341</ref> According to different sources, the strength of Muslims army varied from 1,400 to 1,800 men and between 100 and 200 horses. Some Muslim women (including [[Umm Salama]]) also joined the army, in order to take care of the wounded.<ref>Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 162</ref> Compared to the Khaybarian fighting strength of 10,000, the Muslim contingent was small, but this gave Muslims advantages. It allowed Muslims to swiftly and quietly march to Khaybar (in only three days<ref name = Haykal1>Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. Ch. "The Campaign of Khaybar and Missions to Kings". ''The Life of Muhammad''. Shorouk International, 1983.</ref>), catching the city by surprise. It also made Khaybar overconfident in themselves.<ref>Lings (1983), pg. 263</ref> As a result, the Jews failed to mount a centrally organized defense, leaving each family to defend its own fortified redoubt.<ref name="EI" /><ref name="st18" /> This underestimation of the Muslims allowed Muhammad to conquer each fortress one by one with relative ease, claiming food, weapons, and land as he went.<ref name="al-Tabari 1997 117">{{cite book|last=al-Tabari|title=The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam|year=1997|publisher=Albany : State University Of New York|pages=117}}</ref>
One Muslim reported:"We met the workers of Khaybar coming out in the morning with their spades and baskets. When they saw the apostle and the army they cried, 'Muhammad with his force,' and turned tail and fled. The apostle said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaybar is destroyed. When we arrive in a people's square it is a bad morning for those who have been warned.'" <ref>{{cite journal|last=Spencer|first=Robert|title='Khaybar, Khaybar, O Jews.'|journal=Human Events|date=14|year=2006|month=August|volume=62|issue=27|pages=p12-12|url=http://fulla.augustana.edu:2057/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=123&sid=ccf18ebb-ddd6-48de-b246-4bc9f98a2c7b%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=21975886}}</ref>
 
The Jews, after a rather bloody skirmish in front of one of the fortresses, avoided combat in the open country. Most of the fighting consisted of shooting arrows at a great distance. On at least one occasion the Muslims were able to storm the fortresses. The besieged Jews managed to organize, under the cover of darkness, the transfer of people and treasures from one fortress to another as needed to make their resistance more effective.<ref name="EI" />
 
Neither the Jews nor the Muslims were prepared for an extended siege, and both suffered from a lack of provisions. The Jews, initially overconfident in their strength, failed to prepare even enough water supplies for a short siege.<ref>Watt (1956), pg. 219</ref> Early in the campaign, the Muslims' hunger caused them to slaughter and cook several asses which they had taken during their conquest. Muhammad, who had determined that the eating of horse, mule, and ass meat was forbidden, made the exception that one can eat forbidden foods so long as scarcity leaves no other option.<ref name="P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs"/>
 
===Storming al-Qamus===
 
After the forts at an-Natat and those at ash-Shiqq were captured, there remained the last and the heavily guarded fortress called al-Qamus, the siege of which lasted between thirteen and nineteen days.<ref name="al-Tabari 1997 117"/>
 
Several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combat,<ref name="Watt 1956, pg. 218">Watt (1956), pg. 218</ref> failed. The first attempt was made by Abu Bakr, who took the banner of Muhammad and fought not well, and failed in the attempt to defeat his enemy. Umar, eager to prove himself took up Muhammad's banner and fought more vigorously than Bakr, but still failed. That night Muhammad proclaimed, "By God, tomorrow I shall give it, [the banner,] to a man who loves God and His Messenger, whom God and His Messenger love, and who will take it in humble obedience." That morning, the Quraysh were bickering over who should have the honor to carry the banner, but Muhammad called out for Alī b. Abī Țālib.<ref>{{cite book|last=al-Tabari|title=The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam|year=1997|publisher=Albany : State University Of New York|pages=119–121}}</ref> All this time [[Ali]], son-inlaw and cousin of Muhammad, was ill and could not participate in the failed attempts. Alī came to Muhammad, who cured him of his opthatlmia, an inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva in them. Ali, with new vigor, set out to meet the enemy, bearing the banner of Muhammad. When Ali reached the Citadel of Qamus, he was met at the gate by Marhab, a Jewish chieftain who was well experienced in battle. Marhab called out,
 
{{cquote|bgcolor=#F0FFF0|Khaybar knows well that I am Marhab
 
whose weapon is sharp, a warrior tested.
 
Sometimes I thrust with spear; sometimes I strike with sword,
 
when lions advance in burning rage.<ref>{{cite book|last=al-Tabari|title=The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam|year=1997|publisher=Albany : State University Of New York|pages=120}}</ref>}}
 
The two soldiers struck at each other, and after the second blow, Ali cleaved through Marhab's helmet, splitting his skull and landing his sword in his opponent's teeth.<ref>{{cite book|last=al-Tabari|title=The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam|year=1997|publisher=Albany : State University Of New York|pages=121}}</ref> After his victory in single combat, the battle commenced, allowing Ali to move closer to taking the citadel. During the battle, Ali lost his shield. In need of a substitute, he picked up a door from the wall and used it to defend himself. When the time came to breach the fortress, he threw the door down as a bridge to allow his army to pass into the citadel and conquer the final threshold. The door was said to be so heavy that it took eight men to replace it on its hinges.<ref name="P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs"/>"The Apostle revived their (his followers) faith by the example of [[Ali]], on whom he bestowed the surname of the Lion of God"<ref>Gibbon, D&F of Roman Empire Vol V. page 365</ref>
 
The Jews speedily met with Muhammad to discuss the terms of surrender.<ref name="Watt 1956, pg. 218"/> The people of al-Waṭī and al-Sulālim surrendered to the Muslims on the condition that they be "treated leniently" and the Muslims refrain from shedding their blood. Muhammad agreed to these conditions and did not take any of the property of these two forts.<ref name = "Hisham" />
 
==Aftermath==
[[Muhammad]] met with Ibn Abi al-Huqaiq, al-Katibah and al-Watih<ref name="ReferenceA">Watt 1956), pg. 218</ref> to discuss the terms of surrender. As part of the agreement, the Jews of Khaybar were to evacuate the area, and surrender their wealth. The Muslims, would cease warfare, and not hurt any of the Jews. After the agreement some Jews approached Muhammad, with a request to continue to cultivate their fine orchards, and remain in the oasis. In return, they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
According to Ibn Hisham's version of the pact with Khaybar, it was concluded on the condition that the Muslims "may expel you [Jews of Khaybar] if and when we wish to expel you." Norman Stillman believes that this is probably a later interpolation intended to justify the expulsion of Jews in 642.<ref name = "Hisham" /> The agreement with the Jews of Khaybar served as an important precedent for Islamic Law in determining the status of [[dhimmi]]s, (non-Muslims under Muslim rule).<ref name="EI" /><ref name="Stillman 18–19" /><ref name="Lewis 10"/>
 
After hearing about this battle, the people of [[Fadak]], allied with Khaybar during the battle, sent Muḥayyisa b. Masūd to Muhammad. Fadak offered to be "treated leniently" in return for surrender. A treaty similar to that of Khaybar was drawn with Fadak as well.<ref name = "Hisham" />
 
Among the Jewish women there was one who was chosen by Muhammad as wife. It was [[Safiyya bint Huyayy]], daughter of the killed Banu Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab and widow of [[Kenana ibn al-Rabi]], the treasurer of Banu Nadir. One night, before the siege, Safiyya had a dream that a moon fell in her lap. She told her husband, al-Rabi, about what she had seen. Al-Rabi responded saying, “That is only because you are wishing for the king of the Hijaz, Muhammad!” He then slapped her, leaving a bruise on her eye, which remained there until Muhammad took her as his own bride. When Muhammad inquired about it, she told him the truth. .<ref>{{cite book|last=al-Tabari|title=The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam|year=1997|publisher=Albany : State University Of New York|pages=122}}</ref>
 
According to Ibn Ishaq, when Muhammad asked al-Rafi to locate the tribe's treasure, he denied knowing where it was breaking the surrender treaty. A Jew told Muhammad that he had seen Al-Rabi near a certain ruin every morning. When the ruin was excavated, it was found to contain some of the treasure. Muhammad ordered [[Al-Zubayr]] to torture and interrogate al-Rabi until he revealed the location of the rest. Al-Zubayr drove a torch into Al-Rabi’s chest, but he still refused to surrender any knowledge of the whereabouts of the treasure, so he was then handed over to [[Muhammad ibn Maslamah]], whose brother had died in the battle, to be beheaded in revenge.<ref name = "Hisham">[[Ibn Hisham]]. ''Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya'' (''The Life of Muhammad''). English translation in Guillame (1955), pp. 145&ndash;146</ref><ref>[[Ibn Hisham]].''Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya'' (''The Life of Muhammad''). English translation in Stillman (1979), pp. 145&ndash;146</ref>
Muslim biographers of Muhammad tell a story that a Jewish woman [[Zeynab bint Al-Harith]] attempted to poison Muhammad to avenge her slain relatives. She poisoned a piece of lamb that she cooked for Muhammad and his companion, putting especially much poison into the shoulder; Muhammad's favorite part of lamb. The attempt on Muhammad's life failed because he reportedly spat out the meat, feeling that it was poisoned, while his companion ate the meat and died.
 
The victory in Khaybar greatly raised the status of Muhammad among his followers and local Bedouin tribes, who, seeing his power, swore allegiance to Muhammad and converted to [[Islam]]. The captured booty and weapons strengthened his army, and he captured Mecca just 18 months after Khaybar.<ref name="EI" /><ref name="st18" />
 
==The battle in classic Islamic literature==
According to mainstream Sunni opinion, the battle is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, in which Muhammad is reported to have said "Tomorrow I will give the flag to a man with whose leadership Allah will grant (the Muslim) victory." Afterwards, he gave the flag to Ali.<ref>Companions of Muhammad
Bukhari :: Book 5 :: Volume 57 :: Hadith 51</ref> According to a Shia tradition, Muhammad called for [[Ali]], who killed a Jewish chieftain with a sword-stroke, which split in two the helmet, the head and the body of the victim. Having lost his shield, Ali is said to have lifted both of the doors of the fortress from its hinges, climbed into the moat and held them up to make a bridge whereby the attackers gained access to the redoubt. The door was so heavy that forty men were required to put it back in place. This story is the basis for the Shia view of Ali as the prototype of heroes.<ref name="EI" /><ref>Jafri_</ref>
 
On one occasion, Muslim soldiers, without Muhammad's opinion and permission, killed and cooked a score of donkeys, which had escaped from a farm. The incident led Muhammad to forbid to Muslims the meat of horses, mules, and donkeys, unless consumption was forced by necessity. The Jews surrendered when, after a month and a half of the siege, all but two fortresses were captured by the Muslims.<ref name="EI" />
 
==Islamic primary sources==
Muslim Scholars suggest that capturing Khaibar had been a Divine promise implied in the Quran verse below:
 
{{cquote|bgcolor=#F0FFF0|"Allâh has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this." {{Quran-usc|48|20}} }}
<ref name="witness-pioneer.org">[http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/SM_tsn/ch6s2.html The Conquest of Khaibar, Witness-Pioneer.com]</ref><ref name="books.google.co.uk">[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=r_80rJHIaOMC&pg=PA433 The Sealed Nectar, by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, pg 433]</ref>
 
The event is mentioned in many Sunni Hadith collections. The Muslim scholar Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri mentions that the hadith below regarding Amir's accidental suicide is related to Khaibar:
 
It has been reported on the authority of Salama b. Akwa' who said: On the day of the Battle of Khaibar my brother fought a fierce fight by the side of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). His sword rebounded and killed him. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah talked about his death and doubted (whether it was martyrdom). (They said): (He is) a man killed by his own weapon, and expressed doubt about his affair. Salama said: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) returned from Khaibar, I said: Messenger of Allah, permit me that I may recite to you some rajaz verses. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) permitted him. 'Umar b. Khattab said: I know what you will recite. I recited:
 
By God, if God had guided us not,
 
We would hive neither been guided aright nor practised charity,
 
Nor offered prayers.
 
The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: What you have said is true, 'I (continued):
 
And descend on us peace and tranquillity
 
And keep us steadfast if we encounter (with our enemies)
 
And the polytheists have rebelled against us.
 
When I finished my rajaz, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who composed these verses? I said: They were composed by my brother. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: May God show mercy to him! I said: By God, some people are reluctant to invoke God's mercy on him (because) they say he is a man who died by his own sword. (Hearing this) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He died as God's devotee and warrior. Ibn Shihab has said: I asked one of the sons of Salama (b. Akwa') about (the death of 'Amir). He related to me a similar tradition except that he said: When I said some people were reluctant invoke God's blessings on him, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: They lied. ('Amir) died as God's devotee and warrior (in the cause of Allah). For him there is a double reward, and he pointed out this by putting his two fingers together. {{Hadith-usc|usc=yes|muslim|19|4450}}<ref name="witness-pioneer.org"/><ref name="books.google.co.uk"/>
 
Allah's Apostle offered the Fajr prayer when it was still dark, then he rode and said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. When we approach near to a nation, the most unfortunate is the morning of those who have been warned." The people came out into the streets saying, "Muhammad and his army." Allah's Apostle vanquished them by force and their warriors were killed; the children and women were taken as captives. Safiya was taken by Dihya Al-Kalbi and later she belonged to Allah's Apostle go who married her and her Mahr was her manumission.
{{hadith-usc|usc=yes|Bukhari|2|14|68}}
 
-->
==Сілттемелер==
{{reflist|2}}
 
==Сыртқы сілттемелер==
 
*[[Alfred Guillaume|Guillaume, Alfred]]. ''The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah''. Oxford University Press, 1955. ISBN 0-19-636033-1
*Jafri, S.H.M. ''The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam.'' Longman;1979 ISBN 0-582-78080-2
*[[Bernard Lewis|Lewis, Bernard]]. ''The Jews of Islam''. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-691-00807-8