Басмала — нұсқалар арасындағы айырмашылық

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[[Сурет:Bismillah.svg|thumb|200px|Бисміллә|alt=Written version of the Basmala]]
[[Сурет:Basmala.svg|right|thumb|200px|Бисміллә [[каллиграфия]]да|alt=Calligraphic version of the Basmala]]
'''Бисміллә''' ({{lang-ar|<big>بسملة</big>}}) cөзбе-сөз: '''Аллаһның есімімен'''
 
'''Басмала''' ({{lang-ar|بسملة}}) — «Аллаһтың атымен бастаймын» ({{lang-ar|بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم}}, ''{{transl|ar|DIN|bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm}}'') сөз тіркесін білдіретін ислами термин. Басмала сөздерімен Құранның барлық дерлік сүрелері басталады, намаз ішінде, басқа да істердің алдында айтылады.
:{{lang|ar|بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم}}
:''{{transl|ar|DIN|bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm}}''
<!--:In the name of [[God in Islam|God]]; [[Ar-Rahman|The Most Gracious]], [[R-Ḥ-M| the Most Merciful]].
 
Бисміллә лигатурасы американдық [[юникод]]та U+FDFD {{script|Arab|&#xfdfd;}} белгіленген.
 
<!-- ''{{transl|ar|Wehr|basmala}}'') or '''Bismillah'''<ref name="W1">{{cite web|url=http://wahiduddin.net/words/bismillah.htm|title=Bismillah al rahman al rahim|last=Shelquist|first=Richard|date=2008-01-03|work=Living from the Heart|publisher=Wahiduddin|accessdate=2009-06-21}}</ref> ({{lang-ar|بسم الله}}) is an [[Arabic language|Arabic]] noun used as a collective name for the whole of the recurring [[Islamic]] phrase ''{{transl|ar|b-ismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi}}'', It is sometimes translated as "In the name of [[God in Islam|God]], [[Rahman (name)|Most Gracious]], [[Names of God in Islam|Most Merciful]]". This phrase is recited before each [[sura]], except for the [[At-Tawba|ninth]]; according to others it constitutes the first verse of 113 suras/chapters of the [[Qur'an]], and is used in a number of contexts by Muslims. It is recited several times as part of daily prayers, and is usually the first phrase in the [[preamble]] of the [[constitution]]s of Islamic countries. It also forms the start of many dedication inscriptions on gravestones, buildings, and works of art, which go on to name the deceased or the donor.
 
:{{lang|ar|بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم}}
:''{{transl|ar|DIN|bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm}}''
:In the name of [[God in Islam|God]]; [[Ar-Rahman|The Most Gracious]], [[R-Ḥ-M| the Most Merciful]].
 
The Arab letters of the Basmala are encoded as one [[ligature (typography)|ligature]] by [[Unicode]] at codepoint U+FDFD {{script|Arab|&#xfdfd;}}
 
==Атауы==
[[Image:Bismillah.JPG|right|thumb|200px|The Basmala, artistically rendered in the shape of a pear|alt=White-on-black rendering of the Basmala in the shape of a pear]]
The word ''basmala'' was derived from a slightly unusual procedure, in which the first four pronounced consonants of the phrase ''bismi-llāhi...'' were used as a [[quadriliteral]] consonantal root<ref name="Written Language' 1965 p. 263">''A New Arabic Grammar of the Written Language'' by J.A. Haywood and H.M. Nahmad (London: Lund Humphries, 1965), ISBN 0-85331-585-X, p. 263.</ref>: b-s-m-l (ب س م ل). This abstract consonantal root was used to derive the noun ''basmala'' and its related [[verb form]]s, meaning "to recite the ''basmala''". The practice of giving often-repeated phrases special names is paralleled by the phrase "Allāhu Akbar" (الله أكبر). (usually translated "God is [the] Greatest," or "God is Great"), which is referred to as the "Takbir" (also [[Ta'awwudh]] and others); this method of coining a quadriliteral name from the consonants of such a phrase is paralleled by the name ''Hamdala'' for ''[[Alhamdulillah]]''.<ref name="Written Language' 1965 p. 263"/>
 
Recitation of the ''basmala'' is known as ''tasmiyya'' (تسمية).
 
==Occurrence==
[[File:Basmalah-1wm.png|left|thumb|200px|Thuluth script Arabic Calligraphy|alt=Black-on-white Arabic calligraphy]]
In the Qur'an the phrase is usually numbered as the first verse of the [[Al-Fatiha|first sura]] but, according to the view adopted by [[Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari|Al-Tabari]], it precedes the first verse. It occurs at the beginning of each subsequent sura of the Qur'an, except for the [[At-Tawba|ninth]] (see, however, the discussion of the eighth and ninth [[Sura|chapters]] of the [[Qur'an]] at the [[Al-Anfal|eighth sura]]); it is not numbered as a verse except (in the most common system as of 2011 CE) in the first [[sura]]. The ''Basmala'' occurs ''within'' the [[An-Naml|27th sura]] in verse 30, where it prefaces a letter from [[Sulayman]] to the [[Queen of Sheba]], [[Bilqis]].
 
Basmalah is extensively used in Muslim everyday life, said as the opening of each action in order to receive blessing from God.<ref>{{cite web|title=Islamic-Dictionary.com Definition|url=http://www.islamic-dictionary.com/index.php?word=bismillah}}</ref> Basmalah is a necessary requirement to [[Halal]] food and [[Dhabihah#Islamic_Slaughtering|Islamic Slaughtering]], used to requesting a permission to kill the animal for human benefits.
 
In the Indian subcontinent, a [[Bismillah ceremony]] is held for a child's initiation into Islam.
 
In a commentary on the Basmala in his [[The commentary on the Qur'an (book)|Tafsir al-Tabari]], al-Tabari writes:
 
:“The Messenger of Allah (the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that Jesus was handed by his mother Mary over to a school in order that he might be taught. [The teacher] said to him: ‘Write “Bism (In the name of)”.’ And Jesus said to him: ‘What is “Bism”?’ The teacher said: ‘I do not know.’ Jesus said: ‘The “Ba” is Baha’u'llah (the glory of Allah), the “Sin” is His Sana’ (radiance), and the “Mim” is His Mamlakah (sovereignty).”<ref>{{Cite book |last = Momen |first = M. |year = 2000 |title = Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith for Muslims |publisher = George Ronald |place = Oxford, UK |isbn = 0-85398-446-8 |pages = 242}} In note 330 on page 274 of the same book Dr. Momen states the following: "At-Tabarí, ''[[Tafsir al-Tabari|Jámi’-al-Bayán]]'', vol. 1, p.40. Some of the abbreviated editions of this work (such as the Mu’assasah ar-Risálah, Beirut, 1994 edition) omit this passage as does the translation by J. Cooper (Oxford University Press, 1987). Ibn kathír records this Tradition, ''Tafsír'', vol. 1, p. 17. [[Imam al-Suyuti|As-Suyútí]] in ''[[Dur al-Manthur|ad-Durr al-Manthúr]]'', vol. 1, p. 8, also records this Tradition and gives a list of other scholars who have cited it including Abú Na’ím al-Isfahání in ''Hilyat al-Awliya’'' and [[Ibn Asakir|Ibn ‘Asákir]] in ''[[History of Damascus (book)|Taríkh Dimashq]]''."</ref>
 
==Significance==
[[File:The Bismillah India.jpg|thumb|Bismillah calligraphy from the [[Mughal Empire]].]]
The three definite nouns of the Basmala—''[[Allah]]'', ''[[ar-Rahman]]'' and ''[[ar-Rahim]]''—correspond to the first three of the traditional [[99 names of God]] in Islam. Both ''ar-Rahman'' and ''ar-Rahim'' are from the same [[triliteral|triliteral root]] [[R-Ḥ-M]], "to feel sympathy, or pity". According to [[Arabic English Lexicon|Lane]], ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ar-raḥmān}}'' is more intensive (including in its objects the [[Muslim|believer]] and the unbeliever) and may be rendered as "the Compassionate", while ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ar-raḥīm}}'' has for its peculiar object the believer (considered as expressive of a constant attribute), and may be rendered as "the Merciful".
 
The Basmala has a special significance for Muslims, who are to begin each task after reciting the verse. It is often preceded by [[Ta'awwudh]]. There are several [[ahadith]] encouraging Muslims to recite it before eating and drinking. For example:
 
;Aisha reported: The Prophet said, “When any of you wants to eat, he should mention the Name of [[God in Islam|God]] in the beginning (Bismillah). If he forgets to do it in the beginning, he should say ''Bismillah awwalahu wa akhirahu'' (I begin with the Name of [[God in Islam|God]] at the beginning and at the end)”.— From At-[[Tirmidhi]] and [[Abu Dawud]]
 
;Umaiyyah bin Makshi reported: The Prophet was sitting while a man was eating food. That man did not mention the Name of [[God in Islam|God]] till only a morsel of food was left. When he raised it to his mouth, he said, ''Bismillah awwalahu wa akhirahu''. The Prophet smiled at this and said, “Satan had been eating with him but when he mentioned the Name of [[God in Islam|God]], Satan vomited all that was in his stomach”. — From [[Abu Dawud]] and [[Al-Nasa'i]]
 
;Wahshi bin Harb reported: Some of the [[Sahaba]] of the Prophet said, "We eat but are not satisfied." He said, "Perhaps you eat separately." The Sahaba replied in the affirmative. He then said, "Eat together and mention the Name of [[God in Islam|God]] over your food. It will be blessed for you". — From [[Abu Dawood]]
 
Arabic-speaking Christians sometimes use the word Basmala ({{lang-ar|بسملة}}) to refer to the Christian [[Trinitarian formula|liturgical formula]] "In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit" ({{lang|ar|باسم الآب والابن والروح القدس}}, ''{{transl|ar|ALA-LC|bismi-l-[[Ab (Semitic)|’ab]]i wa-l-ibni wa-r-rūḥi l-qudusi}}''), from Matthew 28:19.<ref>[http://www.arabicbible.com/bible/nt/mat/28.htm Matthew 28:19 (Arabic)] Retrieved 2011-07-25.</ref><ref>''[[Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic]]'' by Hans Wehr, edited by J.M. Cowan, 4th edition 1979 (ISBN 0-87950-003-4), p. 73.</ref>
 
The total value of the letters of ''Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim'', according to one Arabic system of [[Isopsephy|numerology]], is 786. There are two methods of arranging the letters of the Arabic alphabet. One method is in common alphabetical order (used for most ordinary purposes), beginning with the letters Alif ا, ba ب, ta ت, tha ث, etc. The other method is known as the [[Abjad numerals]]' (or ordinal) method. In this method, the letters are arranged in the following [[Arabic alphabet#Abjadi order|order]]: Abjad, Hawwaz, Hutti, Kalaman, Sa'fas, Qarshat, Sakhaz, Zazagh; each letter has an arithmetic value assigned to it, from 1 to 1,000. This arrangement was probably done during the 3rd century of Hijrah during the 'Abbasid period, following the practices of speakers of other Semitic languages such as Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldean.
 
Taking into account the numeric values of all the letters of the ''Basmala'', according to the Abjad order the total is 786. In the Indian subcontinent the [[Abjad numerals]] have become popular. Some people—mostly in India and Pakistan—use [[786 (number)|786]] as a substitute for ''Basmala'' ("In the name of [[God in Islam|God]]). They write this number to avoid writing the name of God or to avoid writing Qur'anic verses on ordinary paper (which can get dirty or come in contact with unclean materials). This practice does not date from the time of Muhammad, and is not universally accepted by Muslims.
 
=={{anchor|In Calligraphy}}In calligraphy==
In [[Arabic calligraphy]] it is the most prevalent motif, even more so than the [[Shahadah]].
 
==Cultural references==
The [[Iran]]ian authorities permitted an album of songs by [[English people|English]] [[rock music|rock]] band [[Queen (band)|Queen]] to be released in Iran in August 2004, partly because the song "[[Bohemian Rhapsody]]" contained several exclamations of the word ''Bismillah''.<ref name="Queen album brings rock to Iran">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3593532.stm|date=2004-08-24|accessdate=2007-03-04|title=Queen album brings rock to Iran|work=BBC News}}</ref> The group's [[lead singer]], [[Freddie Mercury]], was born in [[Zanzibar]] as Farrokh Bulsara to Indian [[Parsi people|Parsi]] parents and was proud of his Persian ancestry.<ref name="Queen album brings rock to Iran"/> At the beginning of each of his albums, [[United States]] [[rapper]] [[Mos Def]] recites ''Basmala''. [[Rapper]] [[Lupe Fiasco]] recites ''Basmala'' during the first track on his album ''[[Lupe Fiasco's Food & Liquor]]''.<ref>[http://rap.about.com/od/albumreviews/fr/FoodandLiquor.htm Lupe Fiasco's Food and Liquor]</ref> [[BT (musician)|BT]]'s song "Firewater" also features the phrase. Rapper [[Rakim]] closes the last verse of his song "R.A.K.I.M." (from the [[8 Mile (soundtrack)|''8 Mile'' soundtrack]]) with "''Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim''". In 2008, the remix of [[hip hop]] artist [[Busta Rhymes]]' single "[[Arab Money]]" was the subject of controversy because of its use of ''Basmala'' in the chorus.
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== Тағы қараңыз ==
* [[Кәлимә]]
* [[Шаһада]]
* [[List of Christian terms in Arabic]]
* [[әл-Фатиха сүресі|әл-Фатиха]]
* [[List of Islamic terms in Arabic]]
* [[Шахада]]
*[[әл-Фатиха сүресі|әл-Фатиха]]
 
== Сілттемелер ==
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