Ъильм әл-Хадис — нұсқалар арасындағы айырмашылық

(Жаңа бетте: {{Мұсылман ғалымдары}} '''Ильм әл-хадис''' ({{lang-ar|علم الحديث ''ʻильм әл-хадис'' "хадис ғылымы"}}) мұсыл...)
#айдау [[Хадис ғылымы]]
{{Мұсылман ғалымдары}}
'''Ильм әл-хадис''' ({{lang-ar|علم الحديث ''ʻильм әл-хадис'' "хадис ғылымы"}}) [[мұсылман ғалымдары]]ның хадистерді оқып, зерттеп білім алуы. <ref>''An Introduction to the Science of Hadith'', translated by Eerik Dickinson, from the translator's introduction, pg. ''xiii'', Garnet publishing,Reading, U.K., first edition, 2006.</ref>
Хадис ғалымдарының бірі [[Джалалуддин әс-Суюти]]нің мәлімдеуінше хадис оқуы хадисттердің санады және матн жағдайлары, хадистерді хабарлаушылардың тізбегі, санад және матн тексті бар–белгілі болған жағдайда болуы керек. Хадис ғылымы хадистердің ''санад'' және ''матн''дерін зерттейді. Мақсаты хадистің ''сахих'' немесе өзге түрлерін анықтау.
==Хадис ғылымының маңыздылығы==<!--
A common [[historical method]] in [[Islam]], hadith studies consist of a careful examination of the ''isnad'', or chain of transmission accompanying each ''[[hadith]]''.The ''isnad'' is carefully scrutinized to see if the chain is possible (for example, making sure that all transmitters and transmittees were known to be alive and living in the same area at the time of transmission) and if the transmitters are reliable. The scholars reject as unreliable people reported to have lied (at any point), as well as people reputed to be heedless (and thus likely to misunderstand the saying).
The stature of hadith studies, reflects the centrality of [[hadith]] to other religious disciplines. “The science of hadith is from the best of the virtuous sciences as well as the most beneficial of the various disciplines,” said Uthman ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Shahrazuri, commonly known as [[Ibn al-Salah]], in the introduction to his widely influential ''[[Introduction to the Science of Hadith]]''. “It is preferred by the noble from amongst men and is tended to by those scholars concerned with verifying the correct from the incorrect and those of complete scholarship; only those who are debased and lowly dislike it. It is the science most pervasive in respect to the other sciences in their various branches, in particular to jurisprudence being the most important of them.”<ref>''Ulum al-Hadith'' by Ibn al-Salah, pg. 5, ''Dar al-Fikr'', ed. Nur al-Din al-‘Itr.</ref>
“The intended meaning of ‘other sciences’ here are those pertaining to religion,” explains [[Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani]], “[[Qur'an|Quran]]ic exegesis, [[hadith]], and [[fiqh|jurisprudence]]. [The science of hadith] became the most pervasive due to the need displayed by each of these three sciences. [The need] hadith has [of its science] is apparent. As for Quranic exegesis, then the preferred manner of explaining the speech of Allah is by means of what has been accepted as a statement of His Prophet. The one looking to this is in need of distinguishing the acceptable from the unacceptable. Regarding jurisprudence, then the jurist is in need of citing as an evidence the acceptable to the exception of the later, something only possible utilizing the science of hadith.”<ref>''al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah'', vol. 1, pg. 90.</ref>
The term ''muhaddith'' refers to a specialist who profoundly knows and narrates [[hadith]], the chains of their narration ''[[#The sanad and the matn|isnad]]'', and the original and famous narrators. According to the 8th century Imam, Sheikh Muhammad ibn Idris ash-[[Shafi`i]], a ''muhaddith'' is someone who has memorised at least 400,000 narrations along with the chain of narrators for each narration.
In describing the ''muhaddith'', [[Al-Dhahabi]] raised the question, "Where is the knowledge of hadith, and where are its people?" Answering his own question, he said, "I am on the verge of not seeing them except engrossed in a book or under the soil."<ref>''Tathkirah al-Huffath'', by al-Dhahabi, vol. 1, pg. 4, edited under the supervision of ''Wizarah al-Ma'arif'' of the High Court of India by al-Muallimee.</ref>
{{main|History of hadith}}
After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, his sayings were preserved in both written and memorized form.<ref name="Hadith Literature">{{cite book|last=Siddiqi|first=Muhammad Zubayr|title=Hadith Literature|year=1993|publisher=The Islamic Texts Society|location=Oxford|isbn=0946621381|pages=6}}</ref> [[Umar ibn al-Khattab]], the second [[caliph]], began to collect all the hadiths together into one unified volume. He, however, chose to give up the endeavor in order to have the Muslim nation concentrate its efforts more on the Quran.
The [[Umayyad]] caliph, [[Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz]] also started an effort to collect all the hadiths. Teaching and collecting hadiths was part of a plan of his to renew the moral fiber of the Muslim community. He supported teachers of fiqh, sent educators to ignorant Bedouin tribes, ordered weekly hadith lectures in the [[Hejaz]], and sent our scholars of hadith to [[Egypt]] and [[North Africa]]. <ref name="Hadith Literature" />
Umar also ordered the great scholar of [[Madinah]], Abu Bakr ibn Hazm to write down all the hadiths of the Prophet and Umar ibn al-Khattab, particularly those narrated by [[Aisha]]. He had these hadiths collected in books which were circulated around the Umayyad Empire. Although these books are lost today, commentaries on them by Ibn al-Nadim reveals that they are organized like books of [[fiqh]], such as the [[Muwatta Imam Malik|Muwatta]] of [[Imam Malik]], the first large compilation of hadiths. Imam Malik himself probably followed the general plan of the early books of hadith ordered by Umar. <ref name="Hadith Literature" />
The classification of Hadith into [[Hadith terminology#Sahih|''sahih'']], sound or authentic; [[Hadith terminology#Hasan|''hasan'']], good; and [[Hadith terminology#Da`if|''da'if'']], weak, was utilized early in hadith scholarship by [[Ali ibn al-Madini]] ([[161 AH|161]]–234 AH).<ref> Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajr al-Asqalani, ''al-Nukat ala Kitab ibn al-Salah'', vol. 1, pg. 263, Maktabah al-Furqan, Ajman, U.A.E., second edition, 2003 </ref> Later, al-Madini's student [[Muhammad al-Bukhari]] (810–870) authored a collection, now known as ''[[Sahih al-Bukhari|Sahih Bukhari]]'', commonly accepted by Sunni scholars to be the most authentic collection of hadith, followed by that of his student [[Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj]].<ref> Ibn Kathir, ''Ikhtisar Ulum al-Hadith'' published with explanation ''al-Ba'ith al-Hathith'', vol. 1, pg. 102-3, ''Maktabah al-Ma'arif'', Riyadh, K.S.A., first edition, 1996 </ref> Al-Bukhari's methods of testing hadiths and [[#The sanad and the matn|''isnads'']] are seen as exemplary of the developing methodology of hadith scholarship.<ref>''Ibid.''</ref>
===A concise history of Sunni literature pertaining to hadith studies===
As in any Islamic discipline, there is a rich history of literature describing the principles and fine points of hadith studies. [[Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani]] provides a summation of this development with the following: “Works authored in the [[Hadith terminology|terminology of the people of hadith]] have become plentiful from the Imaams both old and contemporary:
# From the first of those who authored a work on this subject is the Judge, [[Ramahurmuzi|Abū Muḥammad al-Rāmahurmuzī]] in his book, ‘al-Muhaddith al-Faasil,’ however, it was not comprehensive.
# And [[Hakim al-Nishaburi|al-Hakim, Abu Abd Allah an-Naysaburi]], however, it was neither refined nor well arranged.
# And following him, Abu Nu’aym al-Asbahani, who wrote a ''mustakhraj'' upon the book of the later, (compiling the same narrations al-Hakim cited using his own ''sanads''.) However, some things remain in need of correction.
# And then came [[Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi|al-Khatib Abu Bakr al-Bagdadi]], authoring works in the various disciplines of hadith studies a book entitled ''al-Kifaayah'' and in its etiquettes a book entitled ''al-Jami’ Li Adab ash-Sheikh wa as-Saami''. Scarce is the discipline from the disciplines of the science of hadeeth that he has not written an individual book regarding, as al-Hafith Abu Bakr ibn Nuqtah said: 'Every objective person knows that the scholars of hadeeth coming after al-Khatib are indebted to his works.' After them came others, following al-Khatib, taking their share from this science."
# [[Ayyad ben Moussa|al-Qadi ‘Eyaad]] compiled a concise book naming it ''al-Ilmaa’''.
# Abu Hafs al-Mayanajiy a work giving it the title ''Ma Laa yasu al-Muhaddith Jahluhu'' or ''That Which a Hadith Scholar is Not Allowed Ignorance Of''. There are numerous examples of this which have gained popularity and were expanded upon seeking to make plentiful the knowledge relating to these books and others abridged making easy their understanding.
# This was prior to the coming of the memorizer and jurist Taqiyy ad-Deen Aboo ‘Amrin ‘Uthmaan [[ibn al-Salah]] ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan ash-Shahruzuuree, who settled in [[Damascus]]. He gathered, at the time he had become a teacher of hadith at the Ashrafiyyah school, his [[Introduction to the Science of Hadith|well known book]], editing the various disciplines mentioned in it. He dictated it piecemeal and, as a result, did not succeed in providing it with an appropriate order. He occupied himself with the various works of al-Khatib, gathering his assorted studies, adding to them from other sources the essence of their benefits. So he combined in his book what had been spread throughout books other than it. It is due to this that people have focused their attention upon it, following its example. Innumerable are those who rendered his book into poetry, abridged it, sought to complete what had been left out of it or left out any extraneous information; as well as those who opposed him in some aspect of his work or supported him.<ref>''Nuzhah Al-Nathr'', pg. 45–51; published as ''al-Nukat'', Dar Ibn al-Jawzi. I referred to the explanation of Ali al-Qari, ''Sharh Sharh Nukhbah al-Fikr'', in particular segments of pgs. 143-7 in some instances for clarity. The books mentioned above are all published in the original Arabic, with only Ibn al-Salah’s book, as far as I am aware, being translated into English.</ref>
==The ''sanad'' and the ''matn''==
The ''sanad'' and ''matn'' are the primary elements of a hadith. The ''sanad'' is the information provided regarding the route by which the ''matn'' has been reached. It is so named due to the reliance of the hadith specialists upon it in determining the authenticity or weakness of a hadith. The term ''sanad'' is synonymous with the similar term ''isnad''. The ''matn'' is the actual wording of the hadith by which its meaning is established, or stated differently, the objective at which the ''sanad'' arrives at, consisting of speech. <ref>''Tadrib al-Rawi'', by al-[[al-Suyuti|Suyuti]] vol. 1, pgs. 39–41 with abridgement.</ref> The ''sanad'' consists of a ‘chain’ of the narrators each mentioning the one from whom they heard the hadith until mentioning the originator of the ''matn'' along with the ''matn'' itself. The first people who received hadith were the Prophet's [[Sahaba|Companions]]; so they preserved and understood it, knowing both its generality and particulars, and then conveyed it to those after them as they were commanded. Then the generation following them, the [[Tabi‘un|Followers]], received it and then conveyed it to those after them and so on. Thus, the Companion would say, “I heard the Prophet say such and such.” The Follower would then say, “I heard a Companion say, ‘I heard the Prophet .’” The one after the Follower would then say, “I heard someone say, ‘I heard a Companion say, ‘I heard the Prophet’” and so on.<ref>''Ilm al-Rijal wa Ahimiyatuh'', by Mu'allami, pg. 16, ''Dar al-Rayah''. I substituted the word ''sunnah'' with the word ''hadith'' as they are synonymous in this context.</ref>
===The importance of the ''sanad''===
Much has been said about the importance of the ''sanad'' by the early religious scholars. For example, according to an early Quranic exegete, Matr al-Warraq, <ref> Matr ibn Tihman al-Warraq died in the year 119 after the migration; he used to transcribe the Quran (''Kitab al-Jami bain Rijal al-Sahihain'', vol. 2, pg. 526, ''Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah'').</ref> the verse from the [[Quran]], “Or a remnant of knowledge,”<ref>Sorah al-Ahqaf: 4</ref> refers to the ''isnad'' of a hadith.<ref>Reported by al-Khatib al-Bagdadi in ''Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith'', pg. 83, no. 68, ''Maktabah Ibn Taymiyah''. al-Sakhawi also mentioned this narration in ''Fath al-Mugith'', vol. 3, pg. 333, ''Dar Alam al-Kutub''.</ref> In addition, Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak said, “The ''isnad'' is from the religion; were it not for the ''isnad'' anyone could say anything they wanted.”<ref>Reported by Muslim in the introduction to his ''Sahih'', vol. 1, pg. 9, ''Dar Taibah''. This narration is also mentioned in the translation of ‘An Introduction to the Science of Hadith,’ pg. 183.</ref> According to [[Ibn al-Salah]] the ''sanad'' originated within the Muslim scholastic community and remains unique to it.<ref>''Ulum Al-Hadith'', pg. 255; this also appears on pg. 183 of the translation.</ref> [[Ibn Hazm]] specified this claim by adding that the connected, continuous ''sanad'' is, in fact, particular to the religion of [[Islam]]. He elaborated that the ''sanad'' was utilized by the Jewish community, however with a break in it of more than thirty generations between them and [[Moses]]. Likewise, the Christians limited their use of the ''sanad'' to the conveyance of the prohibition of divorce.<ref>Summarized from ''Tadrib Al-Rawi'', vol. 2, pg. 143.</ref>
The practice of paying particular attention to the ''sanad'' can be traced to the generation following that of the Companions based upon the statement of Muhammad [[ibn Sirin]], “They did not previously inquire about the ''sanad''. However, after the turmoil occurred they would say, ‘Name for us your narrators.’ So the people of the [[Sunnah]] would have their hadith accepted and the people of innovation would not.”<ref>Reported by Muslim in the introduction to his ''Sahih'', vol. 1, pg. 8.</ref> Those who were not given to require a sanad were, in the stronger of two opinions, the Companions of the Prophet, while others, such as al-Qurtubi, include the older of the Followers as well.<ref> See the discussion of this issue in ''Qurrat Ayn al-Muhtaj'' by Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Adam, vol. 2, pg. 57-8. </ref> This is due to the [[Sahaba|Companions]] all being considered upright, trustworthy transmitters of hadith such that a [[Hadith terminology|''mursal'']] hadith narrated by a Companion is acceptable, as the elided narrator, being a Companion, is known to be acceptable. [[Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi]], stating likewise, cited various evidences for this, from them, the Quranic verse, “And you were the best nation brought about to mankind.”<ref>''Al-Kifayah'', pg. 46, ''Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah'' photocopied from the Indian print with [[Abdur-Rahman al-Mu'allimee al-Yamani|Muallimi’s]] verification. The verse mentioned is verse 110 of Surah Aal Imran; the translation of ''‘ummah’'' is based upon Ibn Kathir’s interpretation of the verse.</ref> The ''fitnah'' referred to is the conflicting ideologies of the [[Kharijites]] and the [[Ghulat]] that had emerged at the time of the third Caliph [[Uthman ibn Affan]], his assassination and the social unrest of the Kharijites in opposition to the succeeding rulers, [[Ali]] and [[Muawiyah I|Muawiyah]].<ref> This is the explanation provided by al-Qurtubi in ''al-Mufhim'', vol. 1, pgs. 122-3 as quoted in ''Qurrah Ayn Al-Muhtaj'', vol. 2, pg 58.</ref>The death of Uthman was in the year 35 after the migration.<ref> Al-Bidiyah wa Al-Nihayah, vol. 10, pg. 323, Dar Alam al-Kutub.</ref>
==Biographical evaluation==
{{main|Biographical evaluation}}
An important discipline within hadith studies is ''Ilm ar-Rijal'', ''biographical evaluation''. It relates to the detailed study of the narrators who make up the [[#The sanad and the matn|''sanad'']].
''Ilm ar-rijal'' has as its basis certain verses of the [[Qur'an|Quran]].
Shaykh [[Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi]] has mentioned that [[Imam Bukhari]] listed the following as criterion for a muhaddith:
#The four things which one must write are:
##The blessed ahadith of the Blessed Prophet r and his rulings
##The sayings of the Sahaba and the status of each sahabi
##The sayings of the Tabieen (i.e., the Salaf-us Salaheen who met the Sahaba, but did not meet the Blessed Prophet). The level of each of the Tabieen. Who amongst them was reliable and who was unreliable
##Knowledge of all the narrators who narrate ahadith and their history
#The history of the narrators must include four things:
##Their Isma-ul-Rijjal (biographies)
##Their kunniyaat (nicknames)
##Their place of settlement
##Their date of birth and date of death (to verify whether this person met the people whom he narrated from)
==Discussion of validity==
{{See also|Categories of Hadith}}
Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a Senior Lecturer and an Islamic Scholar at the [http://www.islam.ca Islamic Institute of Toronto], Ontario, Canada, clarifies what he feels supports the validity of hadith studies:
:There is a basic distinction between Islam and other religions in this regard: Islam is singularly unique among the world religions in the fact that in order to preserve the sources of their religion, the Muslims invented a scientific methodology based on precise rules for gathering data and verifying them. As it has been said, 'Isnad or documentation is part of Islamic religion, and if it had not been for isnad, everybody would have said whatever he wanted.
I. A. Ahmad writes:<ref>{{citation|first=I. A.|last=Ahmad|contribution=The Rise and Fall of Islamic Science: The Calendar as a Case Study|title=Faith and Reason: Convergence and Complementarity|publisher=[[Al Akhawayn University]]|date=June 3, 2002|url=http://images.agustianwar.multiply.com/attachment/0/RxbYbQoKCr4AAD@kzFY1/IslamicCalendar-A-Case-Study.pdf |accessdate=2008-01-31}}{{deadlink|date=July 2012}}</ref>
:The vagueness of ancient historians about their sources stands in stark contrast to the insistence that scholars such as Bukhari and [[Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj|Muslim]] manifested in knowing every member in a chain of transmission and examining their reliability. They published their findings, which were then subjected to additional scrutiny by future scholars for consistency with each other and the Qur'an.
[[Patricia Crone]], a skeptic of established Islamic history, has stated:
:One of the biggest problems with the method of authentication by ''isnads'' is early traditionists were still developing the conventions of the ''isnad''. They either gave no ''isnads'', or gave ''isnads'' that were sketchy or deficient by later standards. Scholars who adhered strictly to the latest standards might find themselves rejecting or deprecating what was in fact the very earliest historical material, while accepting later, fabricated traditions that clothed themselves with impeccable ''isnads''". <ref>''Roman, provincial and Islamic Law'', Patricia Crone, pp. 23–34 of the paperback edition.</ref>
==Сыртқы сілттемелер==
*[http://www.hadithsciences.com Hadith Science Magazine]
*[http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Hadith/Ulum/ islamic-awareness.org]
*[http://muttaqun.com/hadith.html muttaqun.com]
*[http://hadithstudies.com/probability-of-narrations/ hadithstudies.com]
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[[ur:علم حدیث]]